The significant accounting policies used in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements are presented below. The policies described were applied consistently for the reporting periods shown, unless otherwise indicated.
The consolidated financial statements were prepared based on amortised cost. However, derivative financial instruments are measured at fair value.
Purchased intangible assets are measured at cost less amortisation based on their expected useful lives or at the lower recoverable amount. Player registrations reported in these financial statements are measured at cost in accordance with IAS 38 and amortised on a straight-line basis over the term of the individual contracts.
Agent and brokerage commissions and other obligations in connection with contract extensions or players acquired on free transfers are now recognised as intangible assets. If these obligations are subject to certain conditions, they are recognised on the date the conditions are met. The intangible assets are amortised on a straight-line basis over the remaining term of the individual contracts.
Computer software for commercial and technical applications is amortised on a straight-line basis.
The useful lives and the methods of amortisation are reviewed at the end of each financial year.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment is carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses.
Subsequent expenses are recognised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenses will flow to the Group.
The SIGNAL IDUNA PARK stadium buildings were measured at their fair value amounting to EUR 177,200 thousand in the opening IFRS statement of financial position as at 1 July 2004, in accordance with the option permitted by IFRS 1.16. This valuation is based on the opinion of an independent expert. The changes in accounting policies resulted as a consequence of an expert review of the remaining useful life of the stadium property, which since 1 July 2013 will be depreciated over 40 years (previously: 19.5 years).
Annual depreciation now amounts to EUR 3,034 thousand (previously: EUR 6,223 thousand).
Land is carried at amortised cost and impaired if necessary.
Buildings and the remaining items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less depreciation. Repair and maintenance costs are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income as expenses in the current period.
Depreciation is calculated in order to allocate the cost of items of property, plant and equipment, less their estimated residual carrying amounts, on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Depreciation is generally recognised in profit or loss. Unless it is sufficiently clear that ownership will transfer to the Group at the end of the lease, leased assets are depreciated over the term of the lease or their useful lives, whichever is shorter. Land is not depreciated.
Straight-line depreciation is based on the following useful lives:
Useful life in years
20 to 50
Other equipment, operating and office equipment
7 to 15
The useful life and the method of amortisation are reviewed at the end of each financial year at a minimum.
The useful lives of intangible assets and items of property, plant and equipment are all finite. If there are specific indications of possible impairment, individual assets are tested for impairment. An impairment loss is recognised for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of net realisable value and value in use. If the reason for an impairment write-down recognised in prior years no longer exists, the impairment loss is reversed until the carrying amount of the asset, net of depreciation and amortisation, equals the amount that would have been determined if an impairment loss had not been recognised.
The Group's leases relate in particular to developed land and leased operating and office equipment.
Under the standard, lessees recognise a right-of-use asset (representing their right to use an underlying asset) and a lease liability (representing their obligation to make lease payments).
Pursuant to the exemptions under IFRS 16, Borussia Dortmund has opted to henceforth not apply the accounting requirements to leases with a term of 12 months or less and to leases for which the underlying asset is of low value.
Right-of-use assets recognised in accordance with IFRS 16 are measured at cost as at the commencement date and are generally discounted at the rate implicit in the lease. That amount is reduced by cumulative depreciation and amortisation and, where appropriate, write-downs and impairment losses. Due to the existing lease agreements, Borussia Dortmund is entitled to control the use of various assets against payment of the lease obligations.
Financial instruments under IFRS are classified in line with the format of the statement of financial position. The table under Note 28 provides a reconciliation of the individual classes and categories of IFRS 9 to the items of the statement of financial position and the fair values of the financial instruments disclosed therein.
Under IFRS 9, financial assets are classified into one of three categories depending on their use: "at amortised cost"; "at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI)"; and "at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)". Financial assets are classified on the basis of the entity's business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial assets. The business model is determined at the portfolio level and is based on management's intentions and past transaction patterns. The cash flows are reviewed on the basis of the individual assets.
As a rule, financial assets are measured at fair value upon initial recognition. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset are included in the initial recognition. Regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are accounted for at the trade date. The amount recognised in the statement of financial position is equal to the maximum exposure to credit risk. The subsequent measurement of financial assets depends on their classification:
To the extent possible, Borussia Dortmund uses observable market inputs to calculate the fair value of an asset or liability. Based on the input factors used in the valuation techniques, the fair values are assigned to different levels in the fair value hierarchy:
Level 1: Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets and liabilities.
Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e., the price) or indirectly (i.e., can be derived from the price).
Level 3: Unobservable inputs of the asset or liability.
If the inputs used to measure the fair value of an asset or liability can be categorised to different levels of the fair value hierarchy, the fair value measurement is categorised in its entirety in the same level of the fair value hierarchy as the lowest level input that is significant to the entire measurement. Borussia Dortmund recognises reclassifications between different levels of the fair value hierarchy at the end of the reporting period in which the change occurs.
a) Financial assets measured at fair value through profit or loss
Financial assets measured at fair value through profit or loss include financial assets whose cash flows do not comprise solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. This also includes financial assets that are not held in either the "hold" or "hold and sell" business models. Gains and losses resulting from these financial assets are recognised through profit or loss.
b) Financial assets measured at amortised cost
Financial assets that are measured at amortised cost are non-derivative financial assets with contractual payments that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding and that are held for the purposes of collecting the contractual cash flows, such as trade receivables and cash and cash equivalents ("hold" business model). Cash and cash equivalents primarily include cash-in-hand, cheques and demand deposits with banks, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
After initial recognition, these financial assets are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method less loss allowances. Gains and losses are recognised in the consolidated net profit when the loans and receivables are impaired or derecognised. The interest effect resulting from the application of the effective interest rate method and currency translation effects are also recognised in profit or loss.
c) Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income
Financial assets that are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income are non-derivative financial assets with contractual payments that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding and that are held for the purposes of collecting the contractual cash flows and selling financial assets, for instance to meet predefined liquidity targets ("hold and sell" business model). This category also includes equity instruments that are not held for trading and for which the option was exercised to recognise changes in fair value through other comprehensive income.
After initial measurement, the financial assets in this category are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income and any unrealised gains or losses are recognised in other comprehensive income. Upon disposal of debt instruments in this category, the cumulative gains and losses from the fair value measurement recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss. Interest received from financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income are generally recognised through profit or loss using the effective interest rate method. The changes in the fair value of equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income are not recognised through profit or loss and instead are reclassified to revenue reserves upon disposal. Dividends are recognised through profit or loss when the legal claim to payment arises.
Impairment of financial assets
At the end of every reporting period, a loss allowance is recognised for financial assets that are not measured at fair value through profit or loss. This loss allowance reflects the expected credit losses for these instruments. The expected credit loss model consists of three stages: a loss allowance is recognised at an amount equal to the 12-month expected credit losses (stage 1), at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition (stage 2), or in the case of credit-impaired financial assets (stage 3). A financial asset is considered to be credit-impaired once there are objective substantial indications, such as the debtor's significant financial difficulty, or knowledge of an application for bankruptcy or past due event. If the asset appears uncollectible, it and the loss allowance are derecognised.